1. Evolution is not solidly demonstrated.
"Evolution is just a theory,"
Darwin's critics point out, as if theory meant lack of knowledge, some kind of guess. Scientists, however, use the word theory in a very different sense than the general public does. Theories are the solid ground of science, that of which we are most certain. Few of us doubt the theory of gravity because it is "just a theory."
2. There are no fossil intermediates.
"No one ever saw a fin on the way to becoming a leg,"
critics claim, pointing to the many gaps in the fossil record in Darwin's day. Since then, however, most fossil intermediates in vertebrate evolution have indeed been found. A clear line of fossils now traces the transition between whales and hoofed mammals, between reptiles and mammals, between dinosaurs and birds, between apes and humans. The fossil evidence of evolution between major forms is compelling.
3. The intelligent design argument.
"The organs of living creatures are too complex for a random process to have producedthe existence of a clock is evidence of the existence of a clockmaker."
Biologists do not agree. The intermediates in the evolution of the mammalian ear can be seen in fossils, and many intermediate "eyes" are known in various invertebrates. These intermediate forms arose because they have valuebeing able to detect light a little is better than not being able to detect it at all. Complex structures like eyes evolved as a progression of slight improvements.
4. Evolution violates the second law of thermodynamics.
"A jumble of soda cans doesn't by itself jump neatly into a stackthings become more disorganized due to random events, not more organized."
Biologists point out that this argument ignores what the second law really says: disorder increases in a closed system, which the earth most certainly is not. Energy continually enters the biosphere from the sun, fueling life and all the processes that organize it. Just as a mother's energy "organizes" a child's otherwise messy room, so the sun through photosynthesis powers the organization of life on earth.
5. Proteins are too improbable.
"Hemoglobin has 141 amino acids. The probability that the first one would be leucine is 1/20, and that all 141 would be the ones they are by chance is (1/20)141, an impossibly rare event."
This is statistical foolishness you cannot use probability to argue backwards. The probability that a student in a classroom has a particular birthday is 1/365; arguing this way, the probability that everyone in a class of 50 would have the birthdays they do is (1/365)50, and yet there the class sits.